Here are some ways pro forma financials can benefit your company, no matter which stage of operation you’re at. Pro forma statements can significantly benefit businesses by offering data for planning and predicting future economic changes, analyzing risks, securing funding, and making merging/selling decisions. Although the pro forma profit and loss statements provide a better picture, it is prudent for the investor to dip deep and analyze what is included/excluded and why so? It also advised comparing the pro forma and actual statements to understand them better. The Assessment and Reserve Funding Disclosure Summary form, prepared pursuant to Section 5570, shall accompany each annual budget report or summary of the annual budget report that is delivered pursuant to this article. Other individual line items can also be easily forecasted, such as the cost of goods sold, since it can be assumed it will proportionally grow with sales.

Which of the following is one of the operating budgets? Project Budget A Project Budget shall be prepared and maintained by Grantee. The Project Budget shall detail all costs for which the Grant will be used during each calendar month of the Term. The Project Budget must be approved in writing by the Project Monitor.

pro forma operating budget

Pro forma income statement allows startups to create a hypothetical projection of your income and expenses. Estimate your total liabilities and costs. Your liabilities are loans and lines of credit. Your costs will be your lease, employee pay, insurance, licenses, permits, materials, etc.

How to create pro forma statements

“Potential capital suppliers will carefully examine pro forma financial statements before committing capital to the firm,” Johnson said. Whether you’re trying to interpret pro forma financial statements or prepare them, these projections can be useful in guiding important business decisions. In fact, business owners, investors, creditors, and other key decision-makers all use pro forma financial statements to measure the potential impact of business decisions. Pro forma financial statements are projections of future expenses and revenues, based on a company’s past experience and future plans. Not to be confused with income statements, earning projections typically account for a potential change in a business.

Pro forma profit after taxes is figured by subtracting the pro forma tax bill of $70,500 from the pro forma profit before taxes of $235,000. Your pro forma profit after taxes, in this case, would be projected at $164,500. You may be wondering, what does “pro forma” mean? Basically, it is a fancy word for “future” or “projected.” Sometimes, however, it is used to restate financial books in an unofficial way. Budget – According to Investopedia a budget is an estimation of the revenue and expenses over a specified future period of time.

pro forma operating budget

Businesses divide their budgets into two general categories — an operating budget and a capital budget. An operating budget lists the costs of running your business, including salaries, equipment, services, interest payments, rent, utilities, loans, advertising, travel and training expenses. Most businesses create an annual operating budget to predict recurring, regular expenditures, and some businesses go back and record actual expenditures in the operating budget to compare the predictions with actual costs.

Two Types of Pro Forma Income Statement

Before any major action is taken at a company-wide level, pro forma managerial accounting can provide relevant information on future taxation, cash flows, and other accounting data. A pro forma operating budget is a budget prepared in advance of possible changes to your company that would affect your business’s operating structure or finances. A pro forma budget forecasts revenues and expenses in advance for a particular project, such as a merger, loan, bankruptcy, new debt or equity payments. A pro forma operating budget depicts the anticipated results of the proposed change, including the projected cash flows, net revenues and taxes.

Positive and ambitious scenarios may paint a rosy picture. On the other hand, you can also get projections that would deplete your startup’s capital and create pro forma operating budget financial challenges. GAAP enforces strict guidelines when companies report earnings, while pro forma figures are better thought of as hypothetical earnings.

It takes into account an injection of cash from an outside source—plus any interest payments you may need to make—and shows how it will affect your business’s financial position. Since pro forma statements deal with potential outcomes, they’re not considered GAAP compliant. This is because GAAP compliant reports must be based on historical information.

pro forma operating budget

But enough with what a “pro forma” is, you care about how to quickly create a Pro Forma Income and Financial Statement. To learn more about budgeting for the future check out our recent blog post on the top 15 financial projection mistakes. Looking at both best case and worst case scenarios helps you make financial decisions based on challenges you may face in the future.

If you have completed your income statement and balance sheet correctly, then the statement of cash flows solves like a sudoku. A well-crafted pro forma is just as invaluable for small businesses looking for more or first-time funding as it is for the investor. From it, an investor or owner should be able to perform what-if scenario analysis, calculate financial ratios, potential profit after taxes, and determine future financial health. Future expenses – Using recent expense figures and accounting for cost discrepancies, a pro forma budgetary document should be able to determine future expenses. This calculation may involve a number of changing factors, from an expanding team to material cost increases. Often, founders are surprised how much pro forma income statement can be advantageous to their startup operations in the foreseeable future.

How Do Businesses Utilize Financial Statements?

Remember pro forma financials are only a tool. These statements are useful for making estimates and analyzing future risks, but they’re not foolproof. So it’s best to use them in combination with other tools such as balance sheets, income statements, economic audits, and more. You can create pro forma statements by using online sample spreadsheets, templates, or existing financial statements in your accounts process. If you want to plan for upcoming economic changes, you need pro forma financial statements to predict future income, identify and control risks, and secure funding for your business.

Line items like income tax expense, on the other hand, typically don’t change directly with sales. Stable businesses can generally estimate income tax expense as a percentage of income before taxes. Acquisitions – Similar to mergers, acquisitions occur when one business entity takes over another, transferring over both assets and projects. Pro forma earnings projections remain crucial for shareholders and top-level executives looking to ensure the financial health of an acquisition.

  • Using pro forma statements that aren’t marked as such to misrepresent your business to investors, the IRS, or financial institutions can be penalized by the Securities and Exchange Commission).
  • While other pro forma documents are interested in projecting company finances with the expectation of business continuing as usual, pro forma earning projections are a useful tool when undergoing a corporate shift.
  • This is why it is important for investors to distinguish between pro forma earnings and those reported using generally accepted accounting principles .
  • But budgets and pro forma statements are two distinct financial tools.
  • This expenditure is treated as the non-operating expenses in the financial statements.

But for our purposes, we will be using the first definition. The last step is usually the most important. Your assumptions are only as good as your baseline information that feeds them. Make sure your revenue, expenses, and growth numbers make sense and are error-free.

Why You Need Pro Forma Financial Statements

To create the first part of your pro forma you’ll use the revenue projections from Step 1 and the total liabilities and costs found here. Prepare your pro forma income statement using data you’ve compiled in the prior four steps. Use the revenue projections from Step 1 and the total costs found in Step 2 to create the first part of your pro format, This part will project your futurenet income.

Pro forma budgets also help your company prepare for projected changes in the market or economic downturns that may affect your industry. Pro forma budgets can be useful for showing to projected buyers or shareholders as well as for helping your business make decisions on mergers and acquisitions. Some banks also ask for pro forma budgets when businesses apply for loans. Accurate budgeting can make or break a business.


You can apply for and enroll in programs here. If you are new to HBS Online, you will be required to set up an account before starting an application for the program of your choice. Our platform features short, highly produced videos of HBS faculty and guest business experts, interactive graphs and exercises, cold calls to keep you engaged, and opportunities to contribute to a vibrant online community. Income is the financial figure that refers to all capital earned from sales of products or services.

When it comes to accounting, pro forma statements are financial reports for your business based on hypothetical scenarios. They’re a way for you to test out situations you think may happen in the future to help you make business decisions. Pro forma budgets can help you plan for your company’s future, but as with any predictions, your budget may not be 100 percent accurate if you proceed with the proposed changes. Factors such as the economy, labor market, changes in your industry or technology, and unforeseen disasters or other circumstances may affect the accuracy of your pro forma budget. A pro forma operating budget can still be useful for your company, however, when used as part of a comprehensive planning and decision-making process. Pro forma financial statements give banks information about your ability to make payments while continuing to run your business.

We’re America’s largest bookkeeping service helping thousands of business owners better understand the financial health of their operations so they can keep focused on growth and planning. When it comes time to create a pro forma statement, you have reliable numbers and reports to get started. We may not be a crystal ball, but we’re the next best thing. Pro forma statements don’t need to meet the strictest accounting standards, but must be clearly marked as “pro forma” and can’t be used for things like filing taxes.

Pro Forma Operating Budget

If a company has a one-time expense, it may drastically reduce its net income in that particular year. This cost is irrelevant in subsequent years. Hence companies exclude such costs while making the pro forma profit and loss to give investors and analysts a better picture of the company’s financial position. A, showing the estimated revenue and expenses on an accrual basis. The statement of cash flows is the only page where you do not need to make assumptions.

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